Reverse weak PCC in Washo
Karlos Arregi, Emily Hanink
May 2022

In Washo (isolate/Hokan, USA), verbs always mark the person feature of the subject, but object marking is more complex. While overt objects are never marked, covert objects are obligatorily marked where possible, which is only with certain subject-object combinations. The generalization we find is that participant (first/second person) objects are marked regardless of the person of the subject, while third person object marking is only allowed if the subject is also third person. We claim that the Washo pattern illustrates a reverse, weak Person-Case Constraint (PCC) effect (*PART>3). To account for this effect, we adopt Deal’s (2015, 2021) Interaction and Satisfaction framework with dynamic interaction, in which a single probe agrees with the subject and the object from a higher position, giving rise to the reverse flavor. We also argue that verbal indexing of covert objects in Washo is pronoun incorporation, which is licensed only by interaction with the probe. Zooming out, we show that the Washo data are a counterexample to Stegovec’s (2019, 2020) generalization that reverse PCC effects only occur alongside canonical (i.e. non-reverse) PCC effects, as Washo specifically bans PART>3, but not 3>PART. In addition, we draw a comparison with Aleut. This language differs from Washo in that, in certain configurations, the object is higher than the subject (Yuan 2018), and as predicted by our high probe account, the PCC effects are canonical rather than reverse
Format: [ pdf ]
Reference: lingbuzz/006608
(please use that when you cite this article)
Published in: To appear in proceedings of NELS 52
keywords: pcc, agree, interaction, satisfaction, washo, aleut, morphology, syntax
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