Different Kinds of Second-position Clitics in Caquinte
Nicholas Rolle, Zachary O'Hagan
July 2019

This topic of this paper is kinds of second position (2P) clitics in Caquinte (Kampa Arawak: Peru). One sort are nominal 2P clitics which appear in nominal domains. The other sort, at least 25 clausal 2P clitics, appear in clausal domains. Neither sort ever appears in initial position, and may appear between words which otherwise form a syntactic constituent, e.g. [Adj=CL N] in the case of nominal clitics and [Dem=CL N] in the case of clausal clitics. Both sorts allow “stacking” (e.g., =ka=mpa=shine=te), but each is subject to distinct constraints on possible hosts. We provide an analysis of clausal clitics highlighting the behavior of two subtypes. First, we claim that all Caquinte clitics are prosodically deficient, as evidenced by stress shifts on the stem. We capture this by associating each clitic with a subcategorization frame (w [...]=CL) that indicates that it must have a host to its left, and together they form a phonological word w, following Inkelas (1990) and Bennett, Harizanov, and Henderson (2018), among others. Second, we argue that the [X]=CL constituent is formed via a post-syntactic operation and not through syntactic movement, supported by the fact that clitics can break up syntactic constituents. Third, we argue that clausal clitics are merged at different points on the clausal spine, which accounts for the distribution of the two clausal clitic subtypes. Taken together, 2P clitics stand at the intersection of syntax, morphology, and phonology, and constitute an essential case study of interface phenomena.
Format: [ pdf ]
Reference: lingbuzz/004272
(please use that when you cite this article)
Published in: Nicholas Rolle & Zachary O’Hagan. 2019. Different Kinds of Second-Position Clitics in Caquinte. In D. K. E. Reisinger & Roger Yu-Hsiang Lo (eds.), Proceedings for the 23rd Workshop on the Structure and Constituency of the Languages of the Americas (WSCLA 23). Vancouver, BC: UBCWPL. 93-107. https://lingpapers.sites.olt.ubc.ca/files/2019/07/RolleOHagan_WSCLA23.pdf
keywords: clitics, second-position clitics, syntax-phonology interface, prosodic subcategorization, spellout, phonological words, caquinte, arawak, morphology, syntax, phonology
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